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ABBADONLiterally, Destroyer. Symbolically, it refers to the Bible that was the source of the cutting truths that Wycliff introduced before the Great Reformation.

ABOMINABLEAbhorrent or detestable. Representing those who are detestable in spirit at the end of the Millennium.

ABOMINATIONSA thing or things abhorred or detested. In Rev. 17:4, 5, it refers to the resultant wickedness of Catholicism’s union with the kings of earth. In Rev. 21:27 it refers to the performance or wished for performance of evil that would be detestable at the end of the Millennium. The mass was designated the abomination that maketh desolate, and the use of this word suggests an attempted abrogation of the once-for-all sacrifice of Christ.

ACCUSEROne who lays charge to another. As used in Rev. 12:10 it would refer to papacy’s counterfeit claim that civil Rome, which had controlled it, was finally ejected from meddling in ecclesiastical affairs. The claim of Rev. 12:10 is a counterfeit of the true reign of Christ when Satan shall be bound. The antichrist in this claim thought it had started the reign of Christ and had succeeded in casting Satan out of the spiritual realm.

ADULTERYIllicit union. As used in Rev. 2:22 if refers to the illicit union of the kings and rulers of earth with the unfaithful churchJezebel.

AIRDomain of the evil spirits or powers of spiritual control.

ALIVEAnimated or active.

ALTARThe place of sacrifice. In Rev. 8:3 the golden altar represents Christ’s sacrificing condition as new creature. In Rev. 9:13 and 11:1 it represents the church with our Lord in the sacrificing condition. In Rev. 8:5 the brazen altar is referred to and would carry the thought of Christ’s sacrifice of his humanity. In Rev. 16:7 it refers to the church under Christ’s headship in the human sacrificing condition. In Rev. 6:9 the brazen altar represents the church in its human sacrificing condition. Being under the altar would mean the sacrifice was complete in the ashes under the altar. Rev. 14:18 also refers to the brazen altar representing the church in it human sacrificing condition.

AMENIt is steadfast, or so be it. As a noun it refers to our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.

ANGELMessenger or a message.

ANTIPASDerived from against the papa or against the pope. Representing the Lord’s faithful who were against the domination of the rising pope.

APOLLYONDestroyer. See Abbadon.

APOSTLESSent forth ones. In Rev. 2:2 it refers to those who falsely claimed to be of the sent forth ones of the Lord. All other references would be to the 12 designated apostles of the Lord.

ARKChest. Symbolically it refers to the Christ in glory.

ARMAGEDDONHill of Megiddo. The great battles of Israel were fought here and it carries in symbol the decisive final battle in which God’s vengeance is meted out. See Volume IV, 1912 Foreword, Page v.

ARMYAs used in Rev. 9:16 the nominal Protestant Church. In Rev. 19:14 the true church on the other side the veil and on this side the veil. In that it is plural it would have to be divided into at least two groups and in that they are in "fine linen" they would be a righteous class. In Rev. 19:19, the true church on this side the veil; the only part of the Lord’s army they could hope to defeat as a force (or forces). The Lord’s "army" wages war as the "sword" of his "mouth" against the "beast," "false prophet," and "kings of the earth," and are instrumental in overthrowing them (Rev. 19:15).

ASIAMeaning "muddy" or "boggy"Diaglott, Appendix. Depicting the general nature of the church’s path throughout her earthly career.

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BALAAM(Doctrine of) the prophet Balaam kept company with the enemies of God’s people for personal gain, and showed Balak how to entice Israel into sin so they would lose favor with God. The "doctrine of Balaam" would be teaching in the church that made teaching error for personal gain proper and justified illicit union with the civil powerssanctioning spiritual idolatry.

BABYLONConfusion, gate of El [or God], a take off from Babel which was to be the gate of God, but God confused the tongues there and it became synonymous with confusion (Gen. 11:9). There was a literal Babylon, but it had fallen hundreds of years before the prophetic utterances concerning Babylon were given. Hence it symbolically is used to picture an unholy city or government of sin and confusion which inescapably identifies the Roman Catholic Church. It also would secondarily include the Protestant sects.

BALANCESUsed in measuring fine weights. It would indicate scarcity, when foods were sparingly apportioned with themrationing.

BARLEYTeachings that would nurture character development in the church. It was more plentiful than "wheat" and would mean that God’s people had more of these truths than doctrinal truths to bring them the true knowledge of God. Barley might include consecration and Christian life teachings, etc. that were more plentiful in the church.

BATTLEConflict between opposing forces of right and wrong and those enlisted under these banners.

BEARUsed as a symbol of the Medo-Persian Empire (Dan 7:5). This seems to aptly describe Cyrus’ method of taking Babylon by, as it were, sticking his claws under the city walls and seizing it. This same grasping tendency was characteristic of papacy.

BEAST(Greek, therion) A combination of civil and religious power. In Daniel beasts represented the four universal empires. In Revelation this symbol is employed to represent the papacy, Church-state of England and Ireland, and the Roman peoples’ government (supporting the "woman" or church in Rev. 13:1-7; 13:11-15; 17:3-17).
      In Revelation 13:14-17 mention is made of an "image to the beast" representing the World Council of Churches. It is vitalized and made a "beast" (combination of civil and religious power) when the Church-state of England joins it. In Rev. 18:13 the word "beast" is from the Greek word ktenosa, which has reference to beasts of burden. It would carry the thought of servitude and sacrifice as taught by church leaders.

BEASTS, FOUR(Greek, zoa, living ones). These living ones represent the four attributes of Godjustice, power, love and wisdom. In Rev. 4:7 these attributes are designated by similarities to animals.
      The lion, long known as the king of beasts, an animal of ferocity but yet known to kill only when hungry, very aptly stands as a symbol of justice. Justice is spoken of as the habitation of his throne. As long as justice is satisfied, it is at rest.
      God’s power was pictured by a calf, or better translated, a young bullock. The bullock was used as a beast of burden to provide power in yesteryear.
      God’s love is portrayed in the figure of a man, the most noble of God’s earthly creation, endowed with the greatest capacity to love.
      The farseeing eagle illustrates God’s wisdom. Rev. 4:8 and Isa. 6:2 seem to parallel each other. In Isaiah each seraphim had 6 wings: 2 wings were used to cover the face, picturing the concealment of God’s person from the world. Two wings were used to cover the feet, picturing the concealment of God’s operations among men. Two wings were used to fly with, which would picture the carrying forth of God’s plan of the ages.

BEDSpoken of in Rev. 2:22, which would be a sick bed, a place of affliction.

BELLYPlace of assimilation and as it relates to the truth the mind would be that place of assimilation. The truth will cause suffering after it is assimilated.

BIRDAn unclean and hateful bird representing the malcontents of society, who from the time of Babylon’s rejection have filtered into the nominal church. We have seen criminals and people of questionable character professing religious affiliation with the churches as well as people with political ideologies.

BLASPHEMYSacrilegious claims or assertions.

BLOODRepresents life, shed blood would picture life poured out or death. When blood is left after death, it separates into clot and serum. The clot putrefies quickly, whereas the serum is more easily preserved.  The clot would picture radicals and extremists, as against the liberals pictured in the serum. It may also picture the spiritual life-giving truths, which are the lifeblood of the saints.

BODIESAs found in Rev. 11:8, it refers to the discredited testimony of the Old and New Testaments.

BONDMANA class in servitude.

BOOKSometimes it refers to the book of Revelation as in Rev. 1:11. The "book" or scroll of Rev. 5:1, "written within and on the backside, sealed with seven seals" refers to the Divine Plan of the Ages and particularly the secret prophetic features of that plan.
      In Rev. 10:9 a "little book" is mentioned which represents the harvest message of truth given to the saints at this end of the age. There are also the "books" of judgment of Rev. 20:12, which represent the Bible which is the standard of judgment.
      We observe that the "books" of judgment are separate from the "book of life" referred to in Rev. 20:12, 15. The "book of life" is a record wherein those found worthy of everlasting life are listed. It need not be a written record, but may be in the mind of God or of Christ.

BOWAn instrument of conquest and destruction. As it is used by the rider on the "white horse" of Revelation 6:2, it would refer to the evil devices and teachings used by the early church in their conquest for power.

BRASSIn Rev. 1:15 and 2:18 the Greek word has the thought of white copper. This would show the "feet" members of Christ with fiery experiences. The "idols" of Rev. 9:20 include one of plain brass (copper) representing possibly something human or earthly. Rev. 18:12 mentions "vessels" of "brass" (copper) which refers to human nature or perfect humanity.

BREASTPLATETersely called the "breastplate of righteousness" in Eph. 6:14. Rev. 9:17 likens the breastplates to fire; jacinththe bluish flame of burning sulfur; and sulfur or brimstone. This combination would symbolize an impregnable righteousness. Rev. 9:9 speaks of "breastplates of iron" which again denotes the strength and protectiveness of this righteousness.

BREASTSAs used in Rev. 15:6 it would mean divine servitude was the primary point and objective of these "seven angels." The "breasts" would be the central and most vital part and represents the principal objective.

BRIDEThe espoused or wedded companion of Christ, the church.

BRIDEGROOMThe prospective or wedded husband of the church, Jesus Christ.

BRIDLESControlling and guiding element. A bridled "horse" would be a controlled or guided doctrine or teaching.

BRIMSTONESymbol of complete destruction.

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CAGEPlace of confinement.

CALFRev. 4:7 likens one of the four "living ones" to a calf or bullock. This animal was used to provide power in yesteryear. Hence, it would identify this attribute of God as being power.

CAMPTemporary dwelling place of the ancient worthies.

CANDLE(Lamp) God’s Word:  "Thy Word is a lamp unto my feet."

CANDLESTICK(Lampstand)  Represents the church or the seven stages of the church which serves as receptacles of God’s Word and of his holy Spirit. In Rev. 11:4 it represents the Old and New Testaments.

CAPTAINSChief men or leaders of society or of military forces.

CAPTIVITYConfinement, imprisonment or restraint.

CENSER (Golden)New Creature sacrifices offered in harmony with the Divine will.

CHAINBinding device to be used on Satan. The truth would be effective as a "chain."

CHILDThe apostate "man of sin" (papacy) in its incipient stages (Rev. 12:5).

CHILDRENNatural descendants or spiritual followers of a certain person, group or people.

CHURCH(ES)The called out class or classes of professed followers of Christ. The seven Asian cities designate the period of its existence (Rev. 1:11). There were seven periods in the one church’s experience corresponding to these seven cities.


CLOUDSGlory or trouble, depending on the vantage point. Those below see only dark clouds of trouble.  Those seated with Christ in the heavenly see the white clouds of glory.

CLUSTERSCollected fruitage of the "vine of the earth"Babylon.

CORNERSDivisions of society.

COUNTENANCEAppearance of the face, which could signify favor or disfavor according to the expression.

COURTJustified condition.

CRAFTSMENCharacter teachers.

CREATURECreated being.

CROWNAuthority, rulership and a "reward" for victory or a wreath of victoryas in "crown of life." The Greek word, stephanos, is used to signify wreath of victory or honor of office. The "twenty-four elders" possess such crowns. When authority or rulership is meant the Greek word diadema, is used.

CUPThe Scriptures.

CURSEAdamic condemnation.

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DARKNESSErroneous and superstitious teachings. As used in Rev. 16:10 it implies recognition of the great darkness in papacy.

DAVIDJesus is the literal offspring or descendant of David. He is also the root or father of David in the regeneration. The name means "beloved" and beautifully applies to The Christ, the Beloved of God.

DAYWhen used as a figure of speech, as in the expression "day and night," it would carry the thought of constancy. The context would figure into its meaning. When speaking of the "Lord’s Day," it would refer to the Millennial Day. It also is used to denote light and the Gospel light. It is used to denote a general period of time as well as, in some instances, a literal year. "Are there not twelve hours in the day?" (John 11:9)

DEADNon-existent, an absence of life in a literal or spiritual sense. It is used to denote the "dead" in consecration. It denotes those under condemnation or without a standing of life. It is used literally, in some cases, as well to indicate an impotent or powerless condition in other cases.

DEATHLiteral non-existence or destruction. Adamic death is temporary, whereas second death would be everlasting. Sometimes it refers to a change of position or death to a condition. A dying condition.

DELICACIESThe Greek has the thought of hardness or wantonness.

DENSHiding places or places of subterfuge.

DEVILRefers to Satan and the Roman Empire under his leadership. His cohorts, the evil spirits, share this title in the King James Version.

DOGSThose who, as it were, bite and devour others.

DOORAn entrance into a condition.

DOUBLEEqual portion

DRAGONThe Roman Empire viewed as a civil power under Satan’s control. Sometimes it is identified as Satan himself.

DUSTWhen used as "casting dust" on the head, it denotes sorrow and grief.

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EAGLESymbol of far-seeing wisdom or of the Bible itself.


EARTHQUAKESocial revolution

EASTDirection of the sunrise. It is used to identify The Christ as the rising illuminary of earth. Also, as Judah, Issachar and Zebulon were stationed at the East of the tabernacle, so these natural tribes will be situated in the East, and those entering the Holy City through the three gates in the East will enter these tribes. The tribes each represent certain traits or character designations.

EGYPTThe world.

ELDERSThe Melchisedec order of the priesthood. When used in the singular it refers to an individual of that priesthood, as in Rev. 5:5, and "elder" identifies "One of the tribes of Judah, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof." In this prophecy the elder identifying Jesus, who stems from Judah, and who is the Root of David, is the Apostle Paul. (See Heb. 7:14; 11:32, 39, 40.)

EMERALDA green jewel. Green being a symbol of everlasting life.

EPHESUSFirst or desirable because it was the capital of Asia Minor. While other cities sank into insignificance, Ephesus rose into power more and more. It was the first or desirable city. This is emblematic of the early church, which is pictured by Ephesus. It, too, was "first" and "desirable" in God’s estimation. Paul was the "angel" of this period from the beginning to CE 70.

EUPHRATESIt was the natural river that ran through Babylon. It very aptly pictures the people who support antitypical Babylon, the false church systems.

EYESSymbol of wisdom or the ability to see far. Also understanding, discernment, wise messages.

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FACE (FACES)Emblematic of the characteristics of the objects referred to; presence; favor.

FAMINELiteral or figurative lack of sustenance.

FEET (FOOT)Those living members of the body of Christ on this side the veil in contact with society. To fall at one’s feet represents homage and respect. Placing one foot on the sea and one on the land is indicative of taking control. Standing up on the feet would indicate a rise to a condition of vitality, support.
      Reference to the "feet of a bear" would suggest clawing powers. Being "clothed with a garment down to the foot" would indicate a general concealment of the body members of Christ, except those living members who are in contact with society.

FELLOWSERVANTA co-laborer (in Christ).

FILTHINESSImpurity as in doctrine or illicit union of church and state.

FIREDestruction; refining process and is used also for illumination.

FIRSTFRUITSThe first results of the redemptive work of Christ which is the development of the church of Christ.


FLOODGreat amount of truths, which could be along many lines.

FOREHEADIntellect or position of prominence.

FORNICATIONIllicit union of church and state.

FOUNDATION(S)Establishment, supports, as the twelve Apostles of the Lamb.

FOUNTAINSource of religious teaching.

FOURSQUARELength and breadth being equal, a symbol of perfection.


FRUITSThe gradual development of character or the yield or results of anything. Fruits may represent foods that are appetizing or desirable.

FURLONGGreek measurement equivalent to 606 feet and 9 inches or 10/87 of a mile. The 1200 furlongs of Rev. 14:20 (Sinaitic, MSS) are emblematic of the distance between Bozrah and Jezreel. Both these cities are referred to prophetically.
      Bozrah is where the winepress was trodden and Jezreel is where Jezebel was slain (Isa. 63:1-6; 2 Kings 9:30-37). The 12,000 furlongs of Rev. 21:16 are symbolic.
      There are 12 lines to a cube. This city being in the form of a cube would have 12 lines also or 12 tribes. There are 12,000 Israelites to a tribe. Hence 12 times 12,000 would equal 144,000 members to the New Jerusalem, the number of the true church (Rev. 14:1; 7:4-8).

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GARMENTA covering for concealment purposes as used in Rev. 1:13. When used in plural, it represents the covering of righteousness, the justification we have through Christ.

GATESRepresenting the twelve tribes of Israel and particularly the leaders of these tribes, the ancient worthies. These gates were of pearls. Pearls are made through irritation within an oyster. So the true pearls were developed through trial, or an irritation made beautiful

GENTILESNon-Jewish believers in Christ.


GIRDLESymbol of servitude from the custom of girding oneself preparatory to doing service.

GOGEnemies of God’s people at the end of the Millennial age. In that Gog is mentioned before Magog it may imply that the Gog class are the leaders in the rebellion.

GOLDENSymbolic of divinity.

GOSPELThe good news of God’s Word, particularly that part associated with the judgments of God that will be shed in the earth causing all to worship God.

GRAPES (CLUSTERS)Fruitage of the vine of the earth: evil, selfishness, denominationalism, bigotry, etc.

GRASS (GREEN)The people of society with inclinations toward higher things, spirituality, right-heartedness, yet non-Christian. Grass that is not green would be common people who are not Christians.

GRAVESHonorable disposal.

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HABITATIONDwelling place.

HAILTruths in hardened form dropped in the storms of trouble.

HAIR(S)Where it is not literal, it represents justification or wisdom or venerableness.

HANDSymbol of power or of responsibility, as when lifting up the hand in an oath and in requiring something upon "her hand" (Rev. 19:2). Also used to indicate possession when the object is in the hand, "palms in their hands" (Rev. 7:9). Used in the phrase "at hand" it means near.

HARLOTSChurch in illicit union with civil powers or earthly headship or with the world.

HARPERSThose who make the sweet sound of music of God’s Word. This can be done through harmonizing God’s Word and letting its melody ring forth.

HARPSGod’s Word.

HARVESTThat which is to be gathered, wheat or true Christians, gathered into the Gospel garner.

HEAD(S)Primarily our Lord Jesus and his authority. (Rev. 1:14) Governing authority as in Rev. 4:4. When it refers to the heads of beasts it represents governments. "Heads" of the "locusts" represent priests or teachers. (Rev. 9:7) It would also represent priests or teachers in the "heads" of the "horses" and "lions" and "serpents" of Rev. 9:17, 19. Governing authority of our Lord as used in Rev. 10:1.
      As used in Rev. 12:1 it would refer to the oversight and direction received by the early church. Casting dust on their "heads" is a symbol of mourning. In Rev. 17:9 the heads represent the seven successive empires of Rome from Constantine until Hitler. These rulers ruled over Europe and not just a nation.

HEART(S)Center of thought, willpower and affection.

HEATAdverse effects from enlightenment.

HEAVEN(S)Ecclesiastical powers.

HELLGrave or death condition.

HOLYComplete in perfection or set apart to God’s service.

HORNSPowers or rulers.

HORSEDoctrine or a teaching.

HORSEMENThose guiding or directing the doctrines or teachings.

HOUR"Are there not twelve hours in the day" (John 11:9)? According to Jesus we can walk in the light of a "twelve hour" day. To make Revelation consistent we have defined the "hour" as covering the whole harvest period. However, this does not mean there are no other possible definitions that need airing.
      Bro. Russell applied the "hour of temptation" to the testings of this whole harvest time. This may not preclude a very special shorter test at some given future time. If Rev. 18:8 means that her plagues come in "one day [literal year], death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire," then one-twelfth of that would be "one hour" (Rev. 18:17, 19), or in one literal month Babylon would be pillaged and destroyed.
      Likewise, Rev. 17:12, 13 speaking of "10 kings" who receive "power as kings one hour with the beast" and give their "power and strength unto the [scarlet beast]." This could also mean one-twelfth of a year or only one-month before this system fails and the "King of kings" stands over them triumphant.
      We gave the general interpretation of one hour as being the whole harvest time and explained that the "scarlet beast" would receive power during this hour. However, we must be prepared for a more specific fulfillment and a rather sudden termination of things once the saints are sealed. "A short work will the Lord make upon the earth" (Rom. 9:28).
      There may be other possibilities which we encourage the Lord’s people to think and pray about for a better understanding. We only know in part and may speak in part until God provides a fuller understanding.

HUNGERLack of spiritual food.

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IDOLATERSThose who worship someone or something other than the true and living God.

IDOLSUnworthy objects of worship.

IMAGEFederated Protestantism.

INCENSESacrifice of Jesus as viewed from the divine standpoint.

INHABITERS (INHABITANTS)Those who occupy a particular place or condition.


ISRAELThe professed people of God. The true Church of God composed of twelve tribes. While the language is direct in establishing that there will be 12 tribes, yet the names of the tribes may be suggestive of certain characteristics.
      Juda may represent the harmonious, popular, friendly and adaptable type of character. Reuben represents optimistic, intense, promotional and talented character. Gad represents a strong-will characteristic. Asher, perhaps sociable and peaceable qualities. Nepthalim, most likely cheerful and brilliant qualities.
      Manasses, restful and poised character qualities. Simeon, expressive and emotional qualities. Levi represents a studious and instructive type of character. Issachar, harmonious, enduring, genius and executive qualities.
      Zebulon, mild and placid characteristics. Joseph, harmonious, enduring, genius and executive qualities. Benjamin, devoted and reverential characteristics. These conclusions are based on the accumulation of statements concerning each of these tribe originators as compared with the 12 known basic characteristics of men.

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JACINTHAs used in Rev. 9:17 it would be related to the breastplate (justification of righteousness) which would be as the reddish-yellow jacinth which is the breastplate of faith and love (1Thess. 5:8; Rev. 21:20). Please see "stones."

JASPERA diamond, a most precious and glorious stone descriptive of the glory of divinity. For Rev. 21:19 see "stones."

JERUSALEM (New)Divine government and particularly the church (Rev. 3:12; 21:2, 9, 10).

JEWSSpiritual Israelites or people of God (Rev. 2:9).

JEZEBELBabylon, the Roman Catholic Church.

JOHNThe church in the flesh in the harvest time who are "in the Spirit" on "the Lord’s Millennial day."

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KEYSPower to open or shut, hence a symbol of authority.

KILLMade to cease to a condition.

KINDREDSVarious nationalities or varieties of people.

KINGDOMDominion of Satan, the dominion of Christ and God, or just a dominion of some group, depending on the context.

KING(S)Earthly potentates or rulers; the Heavenly Potentate (our Lord Jesus); all men will ultimately be kings or rulers in the kingdom. As used in Rev. 9:11 it would refer to the Word of God. The "kings" represented by the "heads" of the beast of Rev. 17 are the predominant succession of rulers of the "beast." Also the church of Christ are referred to as "kings."

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LAMBOur Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ.

LAMPS (OF FIRE)The seven promises to the overcomers of the seven churches.

LAODICEAThe seventh and last stage of the Gospel church covering from CE 1878 to the end of harvest at this end of the age. The word means tried or judged people, Diaglott, App., just people. Pastor Charles Taze Russell was undoubtedly the "angel" of this period.

LEAVESProfession or testimony of the church that shall be as a balm or medicine for healing the world.

LEOPARDUsed in a simile as a literal leopard. A leopard is spotted and hence the papacy is camouflaged as it seeks its prey.

LIARSThose who teach untruth or make false claims.

LIEA deception or misrepresentation of truth.

LIFEVitality given to the "image of the beast" which energizes and quickens it into action (Rev. 13:15). Spiritual vitality. Soul or sentient being. State of animation and consciousness.

LIGHTIllumination of mind and heart.

LIGHTNINGSReleases of truth.

LINENThe imputed or actual "righteousness (judicial sentence) of the saints" (Rev. 19:8).

LIONWhen it refers to "one of the four living ones" (Rev. 4:7), it represents the attribute of God’s justice. Rev. 13:2 speaks of papacy with a mouth like a "lion" which reminds us of the kingdom of Babylon represented by a lion, with Nebuchadnezzar speaking great things. In Rev. 9:8, 17, the "lions" would refer to the rending criticism of justice. In Rev. 5:5 the words "the Lion" are omitted in Sinaitic MSS.

LOCUSTSTruths or teachings.

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MAGOGOpponents of God’s people. Literally land of Gog.


MANNASymbol of immortality when referring to the "hidden manna."

MARKA designation of a slave or servant.

MEN (Man)Christians, nominal or true. In Rev. 4:7 the "face as a man" would represent the attribute of love, as this is one of the outstanding qualities of man. Sometimes it is used literally and sometimes it is supplied by translators.

MERCHANDISESee Rev. 18:12-16. The things in which Babylon deals and commercializes. All of a counterfeit or polluted nature.
divinity; silverspirit nature; precious stonescharacter adornment; pearlscharacter development through trial; fine linenrighteousness; purpleroyalty; silknature transformation (through baptism and actual death); scarletjustification; thyine woodeverlasting life (which is a savor of life unto life; ivorystanding or condition of the saints; precious woodnoble humanity; brassperfect humanity; ironstrong authority; cinnamonunderstanding; spice (amomum) not mentioned in King James Versionknowledge; odours (incense)perfect sacrifice; ointments (myrrh)wisdom; frankincensepraise; winevicarious sacrifice of Christ; oilthe holy Spirit; fine flourworship; wheattrue discipleship; beastssacrificial service; sheepdocility; horseschurch dogmas; chariotsorganizations; slaves (bodies)humanity; souls of menthe lives of Christians.

MERCHANTSPriests and preachers of Babylon.

MIRACLESSigns or manifestation of unusual power.

MONTHS(S)Thirty symbolic years or if literal one-twelfth of a year.

MOONThe Old Testament or Mosaic light of the Law.

MOSESLiterally Moses. The Song of Moses is recorded in Deut. 32 and is a song of God’s dealings and judgments with his people as well as the enemies of God’s people. The song of Moses and the Lamb is briefly outlined in Rev. 15:3-5.

MOTHERThe Roman Catholic Church from which developed other harlots religious systems.


MOURNINGSorrow over bereavement.

MOUTHAgency of communication and consumption.

MULTITUDEA comparatively large number of individuals.

MURDERERSHaters of fellowmen, character assassin.

MURDERSExcommunication or character assassinations.

MUSICIANSThose who make harmony with God’s Word.

MYSTERYA concealed or hidden knowledge. There is the hidden knowledge of God’s Church which is to be joined with Jesus and also the hidden knowledge of the great and iniquitous counterfeit "man of sin"Papacy.

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NAKEDState of being unjustified or in a condition of sin. As used in Rev. 17:16 it refers to the exposing and uncovering of the false church’s sin and also pictures her humiliation and destitution.

NAME(S)Title, reputation, and also may imply character qualifications, designation and authority.

NATIONSUsed literally.

NICOLAITANESConquerors of the people, those who lord it over God’s heritage referred to as being in the church.

NIGHTContinually if used in the expression "day and night." When used with the moon it has reference to the Law age. Evil or spiritual darkness.

NORTHOne of the four divisions of society. It is reasonably concluded that in the New Jerusalem, natural Israel will be divided into 12 tribes and hence certain tribes would be represented in the NorthLevi, Asher, Naphtali (Num. 2:3-29). We believe that Levi replaces Dan.

NUMBERLiteral figure. All numbers are literal in Revelation except fractions.

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OILHoly Spirit of truth or its counterfeit.

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PAIN(S)Chagrin or anguish.

PALMSSymbol of victory, the palm was given to a winner in ancient sport.

PAPSBreast, and being girded about the breast would show it was in Jesus’ heart to do God’s will and service.

PARADISEGarden of God, which would represent the New World to come, "wherein dwelleth righteousness."

PART(S)The third part mentioned in Rev. 8 represents the right-hearted people in their respective positions in life and their viewpoint of the symbolic sun, moon and stars. Rev. 9:15 refers to "third part of men" which represents the right-hearted class.
      The "fourth part" of Rev. 6:8 represents a geographical division and no doubt refers to Europe. In Rev. 12:4 the "third part" refers to the loyal-hearted in the church that would not succumb to civil rule in religious matters.
      When in Rev. 16:19, Babylon is divided into three parts, we understand it means a separation. In that Babylon was composed of Catholic, Protestant and civil rule, it would seem when the appointed time comes the religious
-political set-up would be broken and it will be a case of every man for himself, the "beast," "false prophet" and "dragon" separate themselves. Also used to represent a portion.

PATMOSA literal barren island where the Apostle John in exile received the Revelation of Jesus Christ. This might be similar to the church class separated from Babylon in this harvest time receiving an understanding of this great prophecy.

PEARLCharacter development through trial. This was true of the Ancient Worthies who are pictured as the "twelve gates" of New Jerusalem through whom entrance into the "twelve tribes" of Israel may be gained. Those who gain entrance must meet the character standards of the city. In Rev. 18:12, it is mentioned among Babylon’s merchandise. Babylon dealt in this matter of character through trial and they also venerated the Ancient Worthies and claimed them as "saints."

PENNYDenariusA day’s wages. As used in Rev. 6:6 it conveys the thought of spiritual famine.

PEOPLE(S)Literal people.


PERGAMOSThe third period in the church’s experience, a period of earthly elevation into power and prominence, Diaglott, App., heighth. Arius was the "angel" covering from CE 313-1160. The Greek word is related to the word for citadel.

PHILADELPHIAThe sixth period in the church’s experience, the time of the Reformation. Martin Luther was the "angel" of this period from CE 1518-1878. The word means according to the Diaglott, App., love of a brother. It is the only period not rebuked by the Lord.

PIPERSThose who make joyful music in spiritual things.

PITAbyss, dormant condition.

PLACECondition or position.

PLAGUESSevere afflictions that result from the outpouring of judgment truths against Babylon. Generally this would apply to those afflictions stemming from the Lord’s Word and judgments.

PRESENCE (Rev. 14:10)Has the thought of in the view of, or witnessed by.

PRIESTIn every instance it refers to office of the church in glory. In this capacity they receive the consecrations of the people and instruct them in the way of the Lord.

PRISONCondition of restraint.

PROPHECYLiterally prophecy or unfolding of events to come also a public proclamation or exposition.

PROPHETSIn Rev. 11:10 it represents the Old and New Testaments and in other instances it represents those who publicly preached the Word.

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QUARTERS (FOUR)Taking in all regions of the earth.

QUEENThe apostate church claiming to be ruling companion of the Lord. A false and empty claim and the context shows the Lord looks on her not as his queen, but as a harlot.

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RAIMENT (White)The actual righteousness of the saints.

RAINDissemination of spiritual truths.

RAINBOWSymbol of a covenant.

REEDStandard of judgment.

REINSLiterally the kidneys that were considered the seat of affection.

REMNANTFaithful Protestants after 1799.

RESURRECTIONUsed only in reference to the resurrection of the church. The word means a restanding which implies a standing of life.

REWARDRecompense or benefitas used it has a literal meaning.

RIGHTEOUSUsed literally meaning just.

RIGHTEOUSNESSJustice or the state of being righteous based on judicial decision.

RIVERSPeoples; also channels of religious teaching.

ROBESStanding of righteousness.

ROCKSGreat and stable institutions and fortresses in society.

RODStrong rule; a standard of measurement of God’s Word.

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SACKCLOTHEmblematic of humiliation.

SAILORSMission workers or church workers.

SAINTSLiteral. In Rev. 20:9 it most likely refers to the ancient worthies.

SANDEarthly multitude.

SARDISThe fifth period, Diaglott, App., prince of joy. It is a relatively short period covering only 150 years from CE 1378-1518-28 with John Wycliff as its "angel." It was just prior to the great Reformation and the work of this period was "strengthen the things that remain."

SARDINE (SARDIUS)A red stone approaching white in color, which would remind one of a healthy flesh colorhence a symbol of, love (Rev. 4:3).

SATANThe fallen and debased Lucifer, the archenemy of God and his people. Also the title of the civil government of the Roman Empire as used in Rev. 12:9.

SCARLETSymbol of justification or of atoning faculties. As used with regard to the "scarlet" colored "beast," it would be a symbol of sin.

SCROLLLiteralused in a simile.

SEARev. 4:6 refers to an eternal fixity of purity. Rev. 15:2 refers to the cleansing destructive agencies, as this "Sea of glass" is mingled with "fire." Sometimes the word "sea" is literal, as when used in a simile. Generally it represents the restless and unstable masses.

SEALSAn impress insuring secrecy and preventing intrusion. Also a mark or attestation of approval.

SEASON (CHRONOS)A time (year) symbolic of a 360 year period as used in Rev. 6:11. To those asleep in death that would only be a short or "little time." In Rev. 20:3 it possibly is a 360 day period, a little or literal year.

SEATSThrone or center of ruling authority. The "seats" of the 24 elders would represent the office of "kings and priests" which they occupy (Rev. 4:4; 11:16).

SERPENTEmblematic of Satan and the Roman Empire which he controlled. In Rev. 9:19 the "tails" of the "horses" were like unto "serpents"would refer to prophets or teachers of these doctrines who were subtle and wise as "serpents."

SERVANT(S)Literally used; one or ones rendering service to God.

SEVENA symbol of completeness, the whole of anythingliterally used.

SHAMEUnjustified condition.

SHIPMASTEROne who directs or guides the denominational churchthe minister or bishop of the church.

SHIPSDenominational churches or religious organizations and sometimes includes pagan groups.

SICKLE"Harvest truth" as outlined in "Studies in the Scriptures" and includes "judgment truths" which are to be used in harvesting the "vine of the earth" (Rev. 14:16-20).

SIGNAn evident manifestation with special meaning.

SIONSeat of governmental authority in the New Jerusalem, the new government.

SIX (666)The value of the papacy as represented in the numbers. It is the number of a man. The pope wears the inscriptionVICARIUS FILII DEI. This title means Vicar of the Son of God. The Greek word LATEINOS, which means a Latin man or a citizen of Latium, when numerically evaluated adds up to 666. Likewise the Hebrew word ROMET meaning Rome numerically evaluated results in 666. The pope was this Latin man or we may refer to the papacy as this "man of sin."

SMOKEEvidence of symbolic burning; evidence of God’s glory; memorial of an offering.

SMYRNABitterness, the second period of the church which covered the time of pagan persecution. John was probably the "angel" of this period from CE 70-313.

SODOMSymbol of a sinful city or Babylon.

SON (OF MAN)A title of our Lord.

SONGA harmonious message, particularly of praise.

SORCEREROne who deals with evil spirits or one who co-operates with Satan in drugging or deceiving the people.

SORESIt means ulcers and carries the thought of decaying or dissolution.

SOULSSentient beings, lives or persons.

SOUNDImpression of a message or proclamation.

SOUTHIn Israel of old Reuben, Simeon and Gad camped on the south. Natural Israel will have its tribal divisions in the kingdom. These tribes will be determined by the traits that the individuals possess. Entrance into this holy government will be through the gate of the tribe most suited to the individual’s temperament.

SPACE (CHRONOS)360 year period.

SPIRIT(S)In some instances the Spirit-begotten condition, the mind, teachings or message animation, essence or vital part, literal spirit-beings, the holy Spirit and possibly the Lord.

STAR(S)The seven stars are the seven messengers to the seven churches: Paul, John, Arius, Peter Waldo, Wycliff, Luther and Charles T. Russell. The twelve apostles are also stars as is our Lord Jesus. Teachers or messengers and ecclesiastical leaders may be referred to as stars.

STINGSPainful irritation brought on by the reformation truths.

STONESWhite stonesymbol of the "earnest" of the holy Spirit.  Sardine stonea red stone approaching white or a healthy flesh color, symbol of love; idols of stone (Rev. 9:20) man-made imitations of the kingdom of God; precious stones as found on the "woman" in Rev. 17:4 represent the claims to apostolic succession, as well as the character adornments of the saints; as the merchandise of Babyloncharacter adornments; as a "millstone" the papal church of the French Revolution was like that which is used in preparation of spiritual food. 
      Jasper stone (Rev. 21:11)
a diamond, a most precious and glorious stone descriptive of divinity.  The foundation stones of the Holy City (Rev. 21:19, 20) representing the 12 Apostles of the Lamb; jasperMatthew; sapphireJames, the son of Zebedee; chalcedonyJohn; emeraldThomas; sardonyxPeter; sardiusBarthelomew; chrysolyte, Andrew; berylJames (the son of Alphaeus); topaz, Philip; chrysoprasusLaebbeus (Jude); jacinthSimon Zelotes; amethystPaul. The reasons for these conclusions are based on Rocine study of character types plus a comparison to the twelve tribes in their relation to the tabernacle.

STREETPublic thoroughfare, public concourse and means of access.

STRENGTHAuthority, power of ability, vitality or force.

SUNThe Gospel, the creeds and used literally at times in similes.

SUPPERSpoil taken by our Lord in battle against the "beast," "false prophet" and "the kings of the earth." Marriage supper is a celebration affair.

SWORDWord of God correctly or incorrectly used; also used as a carnal weapon as in Rev. 13:10.

SYNAGOGUEOrganization of Satan.

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TABERNACLEChurch of God. On this side the veil they are in the spiritual or religious heavens and on the other side the veil they are in the new heavens or the new power of spiritual control. Literally it is a tent or movable building, and this aptly illustrates the church, the dwelling place of God.

TAIL(S)Prophets or teachers. See Isaiah 9:14, 15. These may be false prophets or faithful prophets.

TALENTEach one of the "hailstones" representing hard truths is the equivalent of the light of truth possessed by the church throughout the Gospel age. The candlestick of the tabernacle was made of a "talent" of gold (Exodus 25:31-39). Each hailstone combines the effectiveness of the whole Gospel on each subject.

TEETHRending criticism of divine justice.

TEMPLEThe church. The "temple of the tabernacle" would represent the "most holy" of the tabernacle or the place of the divine presence. Rev. 21:22 identifies God and the Lamb as the temple or inner sanctuary of the new government.

TENA complete number in a civil sensealso a literal number.

TENTH (Part)A subdivision of the Roman Empire, probably France in the days of the French Revolution. Also used literally.

TESTIMONYLiterally means witness. The witness inferred is God’s Law (Ex. 25:21). God’s perfect law placed in the ark became a witness for or against God’s people. God’s law of righteousness still stands as such a witness. No longer is God’s law written on tables of stone but on the "fleshly" tables of our "heart." Hence the church becomes the witness for or against the world in the age to come. "This is the name wherewith she shall be called, The Lord our righteousness" (Jer. 33:16; 23:6).

THEFTSTaking of honors and titles that belong to God and Christ unto one’s self. Also taking temporal advantage on religious pretexts. Also withholding that which belongs to God.

THIEFUsed literally in the sense that a thief comes stealthily and generally unobserved.

THIGH (Part)Place of power and in this instance his power is that of the "King of kings and Lord of lords."

THIRD (Part)Sincere or right-hearted division. Also the word "third" is used literally as in the "third angel" or "third trumpet" or "third seal."

THIRSTCraving for the water of lifethe truth.

THRONESymbol of authority or rulership.

THUNDERS(INGS)Controversies or declarations and sometimes literal when used as a simile.

THYATIRASweet perfume of a sacrifice is the traditional definition. Diaglott, App., sacrifice of labor. Peter Waldo was the "angel" of this fourth period from CE 1160-1378.

TIME (CHRONOS)360 years in symbolic reckoning.

TONGUEPrimarily a language designation, but in Rev. 16:10 the expression "gnawed their tongues" is an expression of pain and anguish.

TORMENTTrial or testing. The root meaningtouchstone. It has the thought of severity in trial.

TRADE (Work)Probably mission work.

TREE(S)Grove or orchard of liferepresenting the saints who become a part of this life-giving orchard. Another usage refers to prominent individuals in society (towering above the grass) who were to become Christians when burnt-up to their former condition and converted.

TRIBULATIONLiterally threshing or affliction.

TRUMPETAlerting proclamation. When used in a simile it has a literal sense.

TRUMPETERSProminent preachers.

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UNBELIEVINGThose without the faith.


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VESTUREMantle of authority.

VIALLiterally a bowl or a means of transmissiona vehicle of communication.

VINEAn earthly vine professing to stem from Christ, but only an imitation of the true vine spoken of in John 15:1-6. It represents Christendom.

VIRGINSTrue Christians who are not defiled with false churches in spiritual fornication.

VOICEA proclamation, message, sound, appeal or utterance.

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WALLProtection as used it refers to the protection given by the church.

WARConflict, persecution.

WATERS"Peoples, nations, multitudes and tongues" (Rev. 17:15). Used literally in similes. Also it represents creeds, beliefs, truths, life-giving truth.

WESTThe tribes of Joseph, Manasseh and Benjamin were camped on the West Side of the tabernacle. Natural Israel in the kingdom will have tribal divisions. Entrance into the holy government of Israel will be through the gate of the tribe most suited to the individual’s temperaments.

WHEATSpiritual food for the "little flock." Misapplied spiritual food.


WHOREApostate church that broke its engagement to the Lord to commit fornication with the kings of the earth.

WHOREMONGERSThose who indulge in or crave spiritually illicit indulgence.

WIDOWThe church bereft of it paramours. Marriage is an institution of God, but the marriage of the church to the kings of the earth was not with the divine blessing. It became an act of adultery and a symbol of her unfaithfulness to the heavenly bridegroom.

WIFEThe true church joined in glory with her Lord.

WILDERNESSThe condition of separation from church and state. Not necessarily an organic separation, but always a separation of spirit.

WINDSLiteral when used in a simile; otherwise the powers of spiritual control divided into four factions. The four segments in the divided house of Satan are called the "four winds of earth" (Rev. 7:1directed toward controlling society) whereas in Dan. 7:2 they are called "four winds of heaven" which in that time and place were false religions that were used to control restless humanity in religionhence the emergence of all the many demon religions.
      By way of contrast, these Revelation "winds" stem from demon forces trying to control the earth and are directed toward society and the various ideologies and religions to gain control of this fragile world
these may possibly be:
      (1) Humanists (paganism), such as in the Commonwealth of Russia and China but are represented heavily in western schools and governments;
      (2) Mega-religionists which include all major religions and are a strong and well-funded force under the banner of the Parliament of Religions held first in 1893 and again in 1993 in Chicago, Illinois. World leaders realize there are over 5,000 religions in the world today and hence know that in order to form one world government or at least some semblance of harmony requires modifying the abrasive tendency in those religions which keep third world nations and many elements within the various nations angry and anti-imperialistic;
     (3) Islam or Muslim which is very aggressive and bent on world domination controlling the middle east and many nations with tentacles reaching far and wide.
     (4) Papacy and Protestants allied with Europe and the Western World but who hope to be front runners in forming a major power block in controlling the world as it approaches Armageddon. The Bible clearly identifies the papacy and Protestants as being foremost in gathering the nations to Armageddon together with the dragon (Rev. 16:14-16).
      All these spirit forces, while religious in nature, would not precipitate the final conflict if they remained in the spiritual heavens controlling the religious thinking of mankind. When the papacy and Protestants prevail over the other world religions and succeed in forming the last triumvirate composed of the papacy, Protestants and dragon (civil powers of the western world) they will then be in a position to attempt to destroy both the true church and natural Israel.
      These "four winds" directed toward the earth are "held back" to create sufficient amelioration of the four world civil powers to prevent a "whirlwind." These four civil powers are:
      (1) Conservative powers (Western world of US and Europe);
      (2) Totalitarian powers (which will probably include Russia and China);
      (3) Nationalistic forces (Eastern nations which may even have some democratic governments such as Japan and Korea) and
      (4) Anti-imperialistic forces (Africa and some South American countries).
      These Satanic and evil spirit powers are influencing society and have divided them into four powerful and antagonistic camps. These "four winds" are prevented from unleashing their full fury until the saints are sealed in their foreheads.
      However, when the papacy, Protestants and dragon are moved to Armageddon against natural Israel they will previously have succeeded in beheading the "John Class." The failure of this coalition to succeed in destroying natural Israel will signal all the evil spirit forces to sweep the world into anarchy
thereby exposing all false religions for what they aredemonic and Satanic.

WINE (Doctrine)Either true doctrine or false teachings Babylon uses to justify her illicit union with the State; doctrine or teachings respecting the divine judgment against Babylon.

WINEPRESSAgencies used in crushing the "false vine," Babylon.

WINGSAs used in Rev. 4:8, it represents the Lord’s Word of the Old and New Testaments. This text is paralleled in Isaiah 6. Two wings were used to cover the face, which would picture the concealment of God’s person from the world; two wings were used to cover the feet, which would picture the concealment of God’s agencies and their operations among men; two wings were used to fly which would picture the carrying forth of God’s plan of the ages. The Word of God serves in these three operations. In Rev. 9:9 the "wings" of the locusts would constitute the Word of God, (Old and New Testaments) which is the means of their progress. The "wings" in Rev. 12:14 pictures the Old and New Testaments, which are the means of carrying the "woman" into the "wilderness" condition.

WITNESSES (WITNESS)The Old and New Testaments’ testimony; also our Lord Jesus, the faithful "witness."

WOELiterally denotes trouble and grief. This is accomplished or brought about by reason of the past three "trumpet" messages, and also is proclaimed when the "dragon" is cast to the "earth.""

WOMANA church true or false.

WONDERSign or manifestation of significance.

WORD (Logos or the Bible)God’s written word or instructions. Also used literally.


WORLDSociety, social order.


WOUNDInjury (caused by the Reformation).

WRATHAnger or vengeance.

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YEARLiteral year. In Rev. 9:15, a different Greek word is used, meaning a year, repetition or revolution and apparently refers to each day for a yeara 360 year period.


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